Petrol price: $1.83/litre, Diesel Price: $0.642/litre. A car gives an average mileage of 14 to 23 km/litre ( obviously not a super car or a luxury car). An average man with a car travels 20000km per year. Hence the expense of fuel in a year stands to $ 2,614 (Rs. 1,98,700) or above and the price is expected to go only in the upward direction.
So If we think, in a way, the petrol or diesel cars we use for our own benefits, suck up $2500 per year and make the oil merchants rich as more than we could ever imagine. But that’s not the problem.
The average Carbon di Oxide emission by vehicles is a mind boggling 4.6 metric tons, that also per year and hence tend to destroy the air quality we breathe more than that we can imagine and this is the big problem.
Not a crucial part of our story but, the first electric vehicle was built in the US by William Morrison in 1890s. In modern years, a number of car manufacturing companies, thousands of kilometres away from each other calculated the future and understood the scope of EVs in the auto market. They gave this responsibility to people with a vision and knowledge of Mechanical and Electrical engineering who started their own research and venture for the development of an Electric Vehicle or EV for their respective employer.
The auto makers who succeeded are some names who all of us know like:
Nissan- with its ‘Leaf’.
Chevrolet- with its ‘Bolt’.Volkswagen- with its ‘e Golf’
Toyota- with its ‘RAV4’.
Kia-with its Kia ‘Soul’.
Hyundai- with its ‘Kona Electric’
Jaguar- with its ‘i-pace’.
BMW- with its ‘i8’.
Mercedes- with its ‘EQC’.
Aston Martin- with its ‘Rapide E’
Ford-with its ‘Ford Focus Electric’
and the under development electricity powered ‘Ford Mustang’ to probably beat the ‘King without a crown’ in the electric category, Elon Musk’s ‘TESLA’ with its-
Model 3, the entry model.
Model S Sedan
Model Y, Crossover Utility Vehicle (CUV)
Model X Sports Utility Vehicle or SUV (to be launched)
And the most Notorious, The Tesla ‘Roadster’ which holds the record of reaching 0 to 60 mph in 1.9 seconds.
But here is an extra fact for visiting our website, there are three cars in developement, but of less known auto makers which can compete the Tesla Roadster, naming-
Pininfarina Battista – 0 to 60 under 2 secs.
Rimac C_Two – 0 to 60 in 1.9 sec and
Aspark Owl- 0 to 60 in 1.7 sec, being the most fastest accelerating car on planet Earth.
Being a Car Enthusiast, it made me too curious to know what is the science behind the rolling of the wheels of an Electric Car specially when it has the capability of beating a $3 million worth Bugatti Chiron, a car 15 times expensive than the Tesla Roadster.
The Principle behind an electric car:
For those who don’t like to read a lot, an Electric vehical consists of an ‘Electric Brush Less Direct Current or BLDC Motor’ which revolves to make the wheel spin. The electric motor gets its power from a battery pack which is charged in a charging station.
For those of you who want to know the working in depth, here it is, What do we need to make an Electric Car:
Battery Bank (Power Source):
The Battery Bank is the power source of the car. It is actually a battery pack which stores power while charging.
Lithium-Ion Batteries: they have the highest performance and mileage and probably the lightest battery used in cars but also an expensive price tag. This are the batteries mostly used in Tesla Cars.
Lead Acid Batteries: They are the most cheapest and the most used. They are the type of recyclable batteries.
Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries: The Medium quality batteries better than the lead acid types.
The replacement for the combustion engines in petrol or diesel cars. The Electric motor can be either A.C. (Alternating Current; used to run appliances in our household) or D.C.(Direct Current; responsible for charging our devices). The A.C. Motors are in the upper hand in fields like smooth running, outstanding uphill capabilities and the most important, ’regenerative braking’ which a D.C. motor does not give us.
Thus A.C. motors are more expensive than the D.C. Motors. But the D.C. motor is used for its weight and size benefits as car sizes get smaller. The motor being used also depends upon the system voltage of the car.
The A.C. Motor used in an electric car is normally an ‘3 phase Induction Motor’(Works by the principle of electromagnetic induction) or can be a Synchronous motor( works by the principle of synchronism of the stator and the rotor). The D.C. Motor used in an electric car is a ‘BLDC Motor. The electric motor unlike the traditional combustion motor has only one moving part ,that is the ‘Rotor”.
The Motor Controller is the connection between the battery pack and the motor.
It plays an important role which acts as a gate between the battery pack and motor hence makes and stops power flow to the motor which allows the car to accelerate or decelerate depending upon the pressure on the accelerator pedal.
It is a term well known for electric engineers and is only applicable when an A.C. Motor is used to drive the car. When the car accelerates, the motor controller delivers power to the motor and it moves in the forward direction. But suddenly when brakes are applied, the motor still rotates in forward motion but does not supply acceleration to the car.
Hence at this point, the motor is used to charge the batteries back without wasting the power. This is known as regenerative braking and is a crucial system in electrical engineering and an electric car as it can give back 15% of the total charge applied to accelerate the car.
A ‘Drive system’ is the system of a car responsible for the spinning of its wheels for both, electric and combustion vehicles. In a combustion vehicle, the drive system is accompanied by the clutch and transmission of the car (or gears). In an electrical car, there is no clutch and no transmission system, but a single-transmission system which is the common format for all electric cars. The Drive system of an electric as well as a combustion car is that it consists of a single motor or four motors, each connected to one wheel that spins the wheel.
If there is a single motor connected to the rear wheels, it is known as ‘Rear wheel drive’. If there is a single motor connected to the front wheels, it is known as Front wheel drive’. If there is a motor connected to each wheel, it is known as ‘All wheel Drive’ and is the most powerful Drive system normally used in Supercars for that extra acceleration.
The Brief Answer to ‘How Electric Cars Work’?
So, knowing the above components of an electric car, we already imagined the working of an electric car, but lets discuss it from start to end to make it clear. Assuming the car have charge in its battery pack, running on an A.C. Motor, the easiest way we can explain its working is as: When the car gets started, the ‘Motor controller’ connects the battery pack to the ‘Electric Motor’.As we pressurize the pedal, the Motor Controller delivers the proportional amount of power to the motor or motors, a part of the Drive system. The motor or motors start to rotate and thus rotating the wheels of the car.
As we press the brakes, the electric motor or motors are pulled off from the wheels and used to charge the battery back via regenerative braking(a benfit of using an A.C. Motor) which gives the car a 15% better mileage.Some cars also uses solar panel roofs so that the car can take its fuel from the conventional solar energy to give it even higher miles at a full charge.
Why Electric Cars are faster than Combustion cars?
An easy and straight answer to it is- Because the speed of Electricity, used to rotate a Motor is faster than the speed of the process of combustion of fuel.
If you are reading this, you now successfully know the working of an electric car, the car of the future. But this technology is the first phase of technology for the electric cars and the more is about to come. As soon as we know any important update on this technology, we will be sure to upload it on this website.
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You Can Check The Working Of Hydrogen Car Also.
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